Firstly, it is necessary to define periodontology, which is the scientific field for the gums. Periodontology is the scientific field which ensures that the teeth stay within the bones.
What are the reasons for periodontal diseases?
Their biggest cause is bad oral hygiene. In addition, certain systemic diseases, for example diabetes, the medicines used, badly done crownings and bondings, vitamin deficiencies, smoking, genetic factors, hormonal changes including the ones occuring during pregnancy and external factors which prevent the building up of blood in the region such as radiotherapy may be among the causes.
The most important cause of the periodontal diseases is the bacterial plaque on the teeth which has a transparent and sticky nature. When the teeth are not regularly brushed and dental floss is not used, the minerals in the saliva deposit on the plaque, which causes formations known as calculus or tartar.
Diabetic patients have periodontal diseases more frequently and therefore they have more teeth loss. However, this can be prevented through appropriate periodontal treatment and plaque control.
The gums bleed and are delicate during pregnancy as well. If the amount of bleeding is high, see a dentist.
What are the symptoms for periodontal diseases?
- Red swelling and bright gums
- Itchy feeling on the gums
- Bleeding of the gums during brushing or on their own
- Gingival recession and jolting of the teeth
- Bad breath and bad taste
Gleeting and the most frequent disease Chronic Marginal Gingivitis shows itself through swelling in the gums and bleeding during brushing and eating. If the periodontal infections are not treated and their maintenance is neglected, they get worse and cause decay in the gums. This is called periodontitis. In periodontitis, gleets between the teeth and gums, the jolting of the teeth, spacing of the teeth or widening of the spaces alreasy existing and bad breath are the most frequently seen symptoms.
How can the periodontal diseases be prevented?
As in most diseases, the most important task in periodontal diseases is to be carried out by the patient herself/himself as well. The patient has to remove the bacterial plaque from the teeth and the spaces in between through daily care (brushing and using dental floss). This will keep the calculus below a certain level. However, since the complete prevention of calculus is not possible, it is necessary to visit the dentist regularly and have the calculi cleaned. In this way, the oral hygiene is kept at the highest level. For the periodontal diseases deemed to be caused by genetic factors, the damages which may be caused in this way are minimized.
How are the periodontal diseases treated?
In the early stages of the periodontal disease, the cleaning up of the plaque and calculi on the teeth will be enough for treatment. The gums cleaned in this way will compose themselves in a couple of days.
In the later stages of the disease, the plaques and calculi in the PERIODONTAL POCKETS have to be removed from the root surface under anesthesia. The cleaning up of the root surface will remove the inflammation and ensure that the gums are re-adapted to the teeth. In most cases, this treatment and a good oral hygiene will be enough.
However, in later stages surgical operation may be needed. Please do not neglect to visit your doctor for appropriate treatment and for the symptoms of all dental diseases.